This special issue on 'sustainable agriculture and food security' examines diverse aspects of agriculture policies and practices in Nepal. There is an increased appreciation of ‘food’ as a crucial product for life, not only an economic commodity, and that it is closely associated with sustainable farming and food sovereignty. Current agricultural modernizing policies, have narrowly conceived agriculture as purely an economic sector. Accordingly, agricultural system as a whole has been obliterated and farmers are losing control on farming. At the same time ecosystem is losing resilient capacity to produce healthy food. In this context, sustainable agriculture can be seen as a way out. Sustainable agriculture combines science and art in producing food, fiber, and other products while enriching the ecosystem. This means producing healthy food without compromising the future generation’s ability to produce food and critical ecosystem services. However, globalization has affected Nepal’s agricultural sector in unique way. The corporate control has just been started, especially by introducing hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizer. Migration of youths to overseas labour markets has resulted labour scarcity in farms. How far this process is helping or hindering the sustainable agriculture has been the main theme taken by most articles in this issue of the journal.